Journal of Dental Implant Research 2021; 40(2): 48-53  
Tunnel access for ridge augmentation: A review
Giuseppe D’Albis1 , Vincenzo D’Albis2, Jonhson Cesário de Oliveira Júnior3, Fabrizio D’Orazio4
1Department of Medical Biotechnology, University of Siena, Siena, 2Private Practice, Mola di Bari (BA), Italy, 3ABO - Seção Paraíba, João Pessoa - PB, Brazil, 4Private practice, Turin, Italy
Correspondence to: Giuseppe D’Albis, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3577-3711
D’Albis Dental. Via Pietro Nenni 65, Mola di Bari (BA), 70042, Italy. Tel: +39 349 51 0 3642, Fax: +39 080 47 3 5236, E-mail: dalbisgiuseppe@hotmail.com

The authors thank Mrs. Fortunato Silvia, Mrs. Anna Cristino, Mrs. Anna Pace and Mrs. Sonia Conenna for their support and Dr. Micol Palma for her assistance in preparing this manuscript.
Received: April 8, 2021; Revised: May 8, 2021; Accepted: May 11, 2021; Published online: June 30, 2021.
© The Korean Academy of Implant Dentistry. All rights reserved.

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creative commons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract
In traditional bone regeneration, the periosteal layer of the flap must be released to achieve tension-free primary wound closure. Several minimally invasive tunnel techniques have been introduced to augment bone volume for prosthetic driven implant placement, thus minimizing tissue trauma and patient morbidity. The aim of this literature review was to analyze the available literature on ridge augmentation with a lateral tunnel access approach, and to report the surgical protocols, materials, advantages, indications for use, disadvantages, and complications. The Medline and PubMed medical databases were searched for reports published between 2005 and March of 2021. Seventeen articles describing minimally invasive tunnel techniques for ridge augmentation were identified. Preservation of the integrity of the periosteum has been found to be the determining factor in reducing postoperative pain and improving wound vascularization. Studies have reported encouraging data on the bone volume obtained for implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.
Keywords: Lateral ridge augmentation, Tunnel GBR, Lateral access bone regeneration, Tunnel technique bone augmentation


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